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Friday, June 28, 2019

Straight Pins and Safety Pins


How they make safety pins
A Visual History of the Safety Pin

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Ten Cat Friendly Homes You Have To See To Believe

These home owners have taken things to a whole new level when it comes to catering to their cats every need. VISIT






Build a Cardboard Cat Castle 
BONUS: Feline senile dementia


Monday, June 24, 2019

Desert Ships

I watched a TV program last night titled America Unearthed, a program that features a forensic geologist named Scott Wolter. The series debuted in 2012, was canceled in 2015, rightfully so it seems, and now has been resurrected. 
     In the series Wolter investigates mysteries and artifacts he believes reveal an alternative history of the North American continent. Wolter (rightfully) believes that some of the history we’ve been taught is wrong and he is looking for hidden truths that some people have gone to great lengths to cover up. 
     If you believe in symbols and societies, hoaxes, cover ups, coincidences, fabrications and legends it’s a pretty good show. If you are not a believer, the program itself appears to be all of those things. 
     The program I saw was Vikings in the Desert. Wolter got a call about Viking artifacts found in the Arizona desert and rushed out there from his home in Minnesota. Some expert, a lady in England, identified the evidence, Scandinavian brooches and the like, as genuine. How they got there in the desert...well, it needed to be investigated so Wolter headed out there. 
     If I remember the story correctly, some guy heard of another guy who had a recording on an old reel-to-reel tape recorder that was made by a guy who had since died. The recording was top secret, but the guy (which “guy” I can’t remember...too many guys) had extreme special permission for Wolter to listen to it on a borrowed tape recorder. 
     The recording described the skeleton of a ship that was about 200 feet from a house in the desert that was once prehistoric Lake Cahuilla near the modern day Salton Sea. They didn’t play it, but Newsweek had an article in which the guy on the recording talked about a chest of treasure that was supposedly found in the ship. Also, in the past the History Channel did a ground penetrating radar survey of the same area before Wolter made his discovery. And another company had previously used LIDAR to look at the same area. No mention of that either. 
     Anyway, Wolter got some geophysics professional to come out with his equipment and they got all giddy when they discovered the remains of a ship. Ooops! Turns out it was piece of rebar a few inches under ground that was under some power lines. Apparently the rebar “attenuated” with the power lines. 
     From there he went to Mexico to examine a petroglyph that possibly depicted Viking travelers. I dozed off and am not sure of the outcome. 
     It wasn't surprising to find out there have been other rumors of Viking ships in the desert in the SW, but they are all, like Wolter’s, unconfirmed. It's all sort of like buried loot from robbers like Jesse James and Butch Cassidy or lost Nazi gold, etc.
     The problem with this type of “scientific investigation” is that it starts with a conclusion (the Vikings traveled to Arizona because of Scandinavian over population) then looks for data to confirm that conclusion. In the end nothing was proven. It’s disappointing that both the History channel and the Travel channel air such crap as science.

Friday, June 21, 2019

Exploding e-cigarettes

     I posted on the dangers of e-cigarettes and popcorn lung a few years ago. Now there is another danger that’s possibly even worse...death or serious injury caused by exploding e-cigarettes. 
     There were 2,035 visits to US emergency rooms from 2015 to 2017 for e-cigarette burns and explosion-related injuries. 

E-Cigarette Exploded in a Teenager’s Mouth 
HERE are some samples collected over the past few years showing the dangers of exploding and overheating e-cigarettes. 
The truth about e-cigarettes 
Tips from the Food and Drug Administration to help avoid battery explosions

Thursday, June 20, 2019

Tomatoes On Trail

     In legal history, an animal trial was the criminal trial of a non-human animal. Such trials are recorded as having taken place in Europe from the thirteenth century until the eighteenth. In modern times, it is considered in most criminal justice systems that non-human creatures lack moral agency and so cannot be held culpable for an act. 
     And, who hasn’t heard of the horrific Salem, Massachusetts Witch Trials where more than 200 people were accused of witchcraft between 1692 and 1693 with over 20 being executed? 
     Sometimes fear and hysteria cloud reason and logic, but the folks in Salem really defied both when they held the Salem Tomato Trial. Tomatoes, shortly after their introduction to the western world, were long considered to be a poisonous fruit. 
     After all, logic said that red means danger. Tomatoes were also considered to be a sinful food due to its mild aphrodisiac properties. When the tomato, a rare and exotic plant native to South America, was first introduced to European culture, society shunned tomatoes under the pretense that they were poisonous. Fortunately the myth was quickly dispelled once the French and Italians discovered they were not! 
     Tomatoes became known as the love apple because its bright red color and sweet, tangy flesh made it the perfect symbol for an aphrodisiac. John Gerard, a barber/surgeon and one of the fruit’s earliest cultivators in the US, believed them to be poisonous because they contained low levels of a toxin called tomatine. At the time tomatoes were nothing more than an ornamental plant
     The people of Salem apparently knew nothing about what the French and Italians had discovered so tomatoes were put on trial in the town’s courthouse in 1820, to answer for their toxicity. 
     Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson, who had been holding competitions to see who could grow the biggest tomatoes every year, didn’t believe tomatoes were poisonous. In fact, he even offered a prize to the winner. Also, he had secretly been eating them. The public thought Colonel Johnson was some kind of a lunatic. 
     So, one day Colonel Johnson walked in front of the crowd with a basket of tomatoes and much to the horror of the spectators began eating them much to the shock and horror of the spectators...the man was defying scientific and religious beliefs. His feat disappointed a few people had hoped to watch him die a horrible death. After Colonel Johnson’s theatrical display, the tomato’s toxicity was disproved. 
     As for the belief that red is a sinful color, it’s not clear how that affected tomatoes, but at one point red was associated with prostitutes and brothels and even today some people consider certain colors, red among them, to be obscene.

Tuesday, June 18, 2019

The Rich

     In the United States, as in most all countries, those who hold most of the power tend to come from privileged backgrounds. When in comes to the US Congress, collectively, their gains have outpaced the market and their net worth is five times US median. i.e. the people’s representatives just keep getting richer and doing so faster than the people represented. 
     According to a 2012 article in the Scientific American and a 2017 article in Mind and Body as riches grow, empathy for others declines. We would like to think that the wealthier you are, the more likely you are to act fairly. After all, you already have enough for yourself, so it’s easier to think about what others may need. 
     But that thinking doesn’t line up with research which indicates the exact opposite is true. Two University of Berkeley psychologists did several studies to find out if wealth, occupational prestige and education influenced how much people care about the feelings of others. 
No intersection privileges
     One of their observations was at a busy four-way intersection. They found that luxury car drivers were more likely to cut off other motorists instead of waiting for their turn. I always knew that...when it comes to intersections I have always told my wife the most expensive car has the right of way. That’s why I usually let others go first...Ford Escapes don’t rank very high. They also found that luxury car drivers were also more likely to speed past a pedestrian trying to use a crosswalk, even after making eye contact with the pedestrian. 
     In another experiment they asked people to spend a few minutes comparing themselves either to people better off or worse off than themselves financially. Afterwards, they were shown a jar of candy and told that they could take home as much as they wanted and the leftover candy would be given to children. Those who spent time thinking about how much better off they were compared to others ended up taking significantly more candy for themselves. 
     It was found that less affluent individuals are more likely to report feeling compassion towards others. One study showed that participants with less income and education were more likely to report feeling compassion than their wealthier counterparts while watching a video of the cancer patients. 
     Why does wealth decrease feelings of compassion for others? Logic says it would be the other way around. Having fewer resources would lead to selfishness. 
     The suspicion is that wealth gives a person a sense of freedom and independence from others. The less they have to rely on others, the less they care about their feelings. Remember presidential candidate Mitt Romney’s famous statement "I'm not concerned about the very poor." 
     Wealthy people may be more likely to endorse the idea that greed is good and it is justified, beneficial, and morally defensible. Hence the greater likelihood of the wealthy engaging in unethical behavior. 
     An Arizona State University neuroscientist published a study in the journal Culture and Brain in 2015 found that the higher the subject's status, the less their brain reacted to photos of people suffering. 
     The conclusion was empathy...is reduced among those who are higher in status. A study out of New York University found that when walking around a city block, higher-class people have a shorter social gaze meaning the amount of time they look at the people around them. 
     Researchers theorize that poor people have to rely on others, live in a less-secure environment and spend more time doing things that put them in the presence of other people and learn skills in social interaction. Not the rich. They go out and try to make themselves happy and they take care of themselves. 

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Still Under Oath?

     Supporting and defending the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic is a noble concept. Morally and ethically, many veterans consider themselves bound by their promise to support and defend the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic for life, because they claim that oath never expired. However, you can’t pick and choose which parts of that oath you will adhere to! It’s all or nothing. 
     One person wrote, “Show me in the oath where it states there is an expiration. You won't find one, because the original framers of that pledge, along with every single revision, clearly intended for it to be a life long service to the Constitution.” Wrong! 
     During the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress established different oaths for the enlisted men and officers of the Continental Army. The first enlisted oath was voted on June 14, 1775 as part of the act creating the Continental Army. 
     Soldiers voluntarily enlisted themselves in the Continental Army for one year, unless sooner discharged, and bound themselves to conform to rules and regulations of the Army. The original oath was not for a life long service to the Constitution, it was for one year in the Army. The oath has been amended many times over the years. 
     Today the Oath of enlistment is something that every service member must promise and adhere to for his entire military career. The words "entire military career" were taken from the Army's site on what to expect when you enlist. The oath requires you to: 

1) support and defend and bear allegiance to the Constitution against all enemies, foreign and domestic 
2) obey the orders of the President of the United States 
3) obey orders of the officers appointed over them 
4) all according to regulations and the Uniform Code of Military Justice

     Reenlistment requires that one retake the oath which implies that the oath has expired. In addition, discharged veterans have no officers appointed over them, are not under the jurisdiction of the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and many openly voice opposition to the President. 
     I can’t help but wonder if a senior NCO or an officer showed up at their door ordering them to do something, would they do it? And if they refused, would they submit themselves to a court martial under the UCMJ? Probably not, but yet they claim their oath never expired.

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Furnace Filters Matter

     The other night I discovered a puddle of water leaking from underneath the furnace while the air conditioner was running. 
     According to what I could find on the internet the three most common causes of this are a blocked drain line, a cracked drip pan or a clogged cooling coil. 
     I quickly determined the drain line wasn’t clogged so that meant a call to the air conditioning people.  As I am a club member with a maintenance contract, they arrived that same day and the tech told me the same thing I saw on the internet. I always try to investigate problems in advance...I want to know if service people are blowing smoke! 
     It was determined the problem was the coils were clogged resulting in a lot of air not passing through them which in turn meant water was blowing all over inside; plus there was a loss of efficiency. 


     According to the technician the problem was probably caused by years of using those ubiquitous cheap green air filters. He said they let too much debris through and eventually the coils will clog.

     Is that really true? Well, shortly after he left I was talking to my neighbor and guess what? Years ago he had the same problem and they began using Filtrete pleated filters, exactly the ones recommended by the service technician. 
     The choice of which furnace air filters to buy for your furnace depends many things. How much you want to spend, what you’re trying to filter, and how diligent you are about changing the filter are all considerations. As with many things in life, cheap isn't always the best bargain!
     The minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) scale goes from 1 to 16. Most residential filters range from 4 to 12. Maintaining the furnace manufacturer’s specified airflow is critical to achieving energy efficiency and maximum life from the blower motor and heat exchanger. 
     An inexpensive MERV 4 filter captures 80 percent of the particles 50 microns and larger, but only 25 percent of the particles in the 3 to 10 micron range. 
     For most homeowners, a more expensive MERV 7 or 8 pleated filter provides a good balance between cost and filtration efficiency. These filters trap 80 to 95 percent of the particles 5 microns and larger—more than enough filtration for most households. 
     But if you have family members with allergies or low-immunity issues, high-efficiency (MERV 11 and higher) filter are recommended, but one must make sure you stay on top of changing them. They will also, according to the technician, cut down on air flow and the efficiency of the air conditioner. 
     High-efficiency filters capture 99 percent of airborne particles such as bacteria and viruses, fumes and pollen. But you’ll have to run your furnace fan full time to get the maximum benefit. That will, along with the increased cost of the filters, cost more. 
     Never switch to a high-efficiency filter without first talking to a HVAC technician. They will have to boost fan speed to compensate for the reduced airflow. In our case increasing the fan speed isn't possible because of the location of the furnace.  The increased fan speed also increases the noise level in the adjacent family room to the point that you couldn't hear an elephant break wind!
     With these filters it is essential to be diligent about replacing the filter regularly. A clogged filter can burn out the blower motor, damage the heat exchanger and cost hundreds of dollars in wasted energy. 
     So...furnace filters DO matter!

Monday, June 10, 2019

Can You Eat A Cockroach?

     In October of 2012 a 32-year-old man downed dozens of cockroaches and worms to win a python worth $850 at a Florida reptile store, then minutes later collapsed and died.
     The man, Edward Archbold, was among 20 to 30 contestants participating in the contest with the goal to eat as many insects and worms as they could. The store owner described Archbold as the life of the party and said he really made the night more fun. The fun was over when soon after the contest Archbold fell ill, collapsed outside the store and began to vomit. A friend called for medical help then Archbold himself dialed 911. An ambulance took him to the hospital where he was pronounced dead. 
     The contestants had signed a waiver accepting responsibility and the insects used in the contest were raised in a controlled environment as food for reptiles. No other contestant got sick, so it’s unlikely that the cockroaches and other bugs had anything to do with Archbold’s death. 
     In the wild, cockroaches are scavengers that pick up various bacterial organisms. Cockroaches themselves don't transmit disease, though they can contaminate food with their waste and saliva which contains bacteria that can cause food poisoning, diarrhea, and Staphylococcus infections.. Cockroaches can pick up Salmonella on their legs and deposit it to food, which can cause food poisoning if ingested. 
     Although they are associated with, and thrive in conditions of poor sanitation due to the large amount of food available, they can also invade even the best-kept homes. Contrary to popular belief, you do not get cockroaches because of poor housekeeping. Cockroaches can come into your home on food, packages, boxes, used furniture and appliances, or can migrate from adjoining apartments or buildings. Also, breathing dust containing cockroach feces or body parts can cause an allergic reaction and asthma, especially in children. 
     But, yes, you can safely eat cockroaches...just not the ones you find around your house. Cockroaches can actually be very clean and tasty insects, especially if they are fed on fresh fruits and vegetables. They can be eaten toasted, fried, sauteed, or boiled. Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches have a taste and texture like greasy chicken. 
     Cockroaches are a good source of protein. They always say that about any disgusting, particularly nasty food. People say they taste a bit like burnt chicken and have a slightly nauseating odor. They are a good source of protein. In some parts of the world it is possible to buy chocolate coated fried roaches. It’s said you can’t really tell tou’re eating a cockroach because it's flavor blends well with chocolate. When served as food all the seasoning makes them lose their natural flavor.

Sunday, June 9, 2019

Download FREE Software

Tech Spot 
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CNET Downloads 
Find the latest free software, apps, downloads, and reviews for Windows, Mac, iOS, and Android. Download.com is the place where people go to discover free-to-try legal downloads. Featuring rated reviews, Download.com is the trusted, safe, and secure resource for software, mobile applications, and game downloads. With everything from PC starter kits to games, security patches, screensavers, and mobile apps, you can play with more than 150,000 free downloads. Security, Browsers, Business, Developer Tools, Digital Photos, Drivers, Games, Graphic Design, Music and Audio, Utilities and OS, Video

Tucows Download 
Tucows provides back office solutions and wholesale internet services to a global network of more than 6,000 web hosting companies, internet service providers (ISPs) and other service providers worldwide. Tucows Downloads, earned its name early on for being the first to provide software on a "freeware" or "shareware" basis. They currently host more than 40,000 software titles (all tested virus and spyware free) through their international network of partner sites. These sites provide users with fast, local and safe virus and spyware free downloads 

File Horse 
Find and download new software and the latest web applications. The site specializes in providing the latest versions of hand-picked quality software for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS operating systems on a daily basis. 

Major Geeks 
Free Software Downloads for Windows, Andriod, and IoS. Only the best freeware and shareware apps hand-picked by the editors. MajorGeeks was founded in 2001 and features top downloads and top news. You may not be able to find any software you want but if you are looking for tech tools this is the place to go.

Saturday, June 8, 2019

Street or Road...What's the Difference?

Roads, streets, avenues...how are they defined? Here’s a handy infographic that explains all…

Friday, June 7, 2019

Repairing My Laptop

     A few months ago my old Toshiba Satellite laptop’s hard drive stated to go bad, so I took it to Best Buy and $272 later had an SSD hard drive installed. 
     Much to my dismay the other day the keyboard ceased functioning. Naturally I was reluctant to replace the laptop having just replaced the HD. A call to Best Buy revealed that a keyboard is no longer available because the laptop is too old, but I was advised that I possibly could find one online. 
     Not wanting to go that route I found out it is possible to disable the keyboard via the control panel, but that’s only temporary. If you want to permanently disable the keyboard on your laptop it’s going to be a little more involved. You’ll have to turn off Window’s ability to automatically install the driver again; otherwise the keyboard will spring back into life every time you reboot your machine. I didn't want to risk messing up something so decided to just disconnect the keyboard cable.
     I found THIS article at PC World and there is a video on YouTube HERE that tells how to pull the laptop’s keyboard. That’s what I did and then disconnected it. 
     Next was a trip to Best Buy where I spent $30 for an Insignia Wireless Keyboad and Mouse which came complete with batteries. This keyboard even has audio buttons that allow you to control the volume. 
     A few people complained of sticking keys right out of the box and called it “trash.” Most of the 4-star reviews of it involved trival complaints. So, far mine is working perfectly and I’m happy that I managed to salvage the laptop for only $30. 

EDIT:  Only two days after beginning to use the Insignia Wireless Keyboard/ Mouse the keys started sticking making it almost impossible to type anything.  When I checked Amazon and Best Buy I discovered there were literally dozens of complaints about this unit having that problem. Clearly the manufacturer and Best Buy are aware of the the issue, but don't care.  In any case, I took it back to Best Buy and exchanged it for a $20 Logitech Wireless Keyboard and it seems to be working fine.  The only disadvantage is that it takes two receivers/transmitters, one for the wireless mouse and one for the keyboard whereas the Insignia only took one.  Bottom line:  Insignia is junk...don't buy.


     BTW, after I had the old hardrive replaced I snapped the old one in my IOCELL External Hard Drive Enclosure which I have had for several years. You can save files to it like a flash drive if you want, but I used it to recover files off the old drive and install them on the new drive. Best Buy offered to salvage my files for $100! 
     Also, if you ever buy a new computer don’t waste money on Microsoft Office! Download and use Libre Office. It does everything Microsoft Office does including saving documents in Office format and Libre Office is completely free.

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Five Second Rule For Food

     Just about everywhere food is being prepared, whether at home or in a restaurant, if it hits the floor you’ll probably hear someone yell, "Five-second rule!" 
     In case anybody’s not familiar with the five-second rule, it’s a way to salvage expensive food...if it falls on the floor and you snatch it up in less than five seconds, it's safe to eat. 
     Is it really? Should you throw it away, wash it off or just ignore the fact that it was on the floor? By the way, people are more inclined to eat dropped cookies and candy more often than they are dropped vegetables.

     Of course someone really has done a scientific study of the five-second rule and before we go on, I am betting that their recommendations don’t agree with the rest of us. 
     One project I read was by a high school intern in the food science and nutrition department at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The floors around the lab, hall, dormitory and cafeteria were tested to see how many organisms could be identified. They were surprised to actually find very few microorganisms. It was believed the reason the floors were so clean was because they were dry and most pathogens like salmonella, listeria, or E. coli can't survive without moisture. 
     Cookies and gummi bears were placed on both rough and smooth sterile tiles covered with measured amounts of E. coli and the germs transferred in less than five seconds. Carpet and damp floors were not included in the study.
     Naturally the experts say you should never eat food that's fallen on the floor. Surprised? A spokesperson for the American Dietetic Association said if you do eat it you should at least wash it first. Hard to do with a cookie. The reason: Bacteria are all over the place, and 10 types, including E. coli, cause food borne illnesses, such as fever, diarrhea, and flu-like symptoms. The owner of a California consulting firm said nobody in the restaurant business really believes the five-second rule, but restaurant operators are concerned about the bottom line, so they probably aren’t going to throw out anything that’s hit the floor. Besides, nobody will ever know. 
     The bottom line is that if the food is dry and not sticky, like a cookie, it's less likely that bacteria will stick to it and it won’t pick up anything but hair or something. But in most cases the food involves a steak or piece of fish which aren’t cheap plus they are moist which means they will pick up germs. 

     When considering restaurants, experts warn that even food that touches counters that have been washed and sanitized can be dangerous. One “expert” gave a scenario where food was dropped on a damp floor and then placed on the counter. Maybe an employee walked their dog before they came to work and there was dog poop on their shoe and then a carton of produce from the floor was set it on the counter. You wouldn’t want to eat food that came in contact with the counter either. 
     The reality is that there's no consensus on how safe it is to eat dropped food. Food borne illnesses are not serious for the millions of people who contract them every year. But, according to the web site of the CDC's National Center for Infectious Diseases, it's estimated that of those cases, 300,000 people are hospitalized, and 5,000 die. Most deaths occur among susceptible populations that include small children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems. 
     Bottom line: floors are generally clean but if there are microorganisms present, they will transfer in less than five seconds.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Gas dryers vs. electric dryers

     Our laundry room has three dryer hookups…electric for both 120 and 240 volts as well as gas. Most people won’t have all those options, but what is the best, gas or electric? Does it make much difference? 
     Both gas and electric dryers use heat, air, and tumbling to dry clothes. Obviously, electric dryers use a heating element, gas dryers use a gas burner. In the former, an electric current travels through the heating coil, building up electrons and heating up the metal and in turn, the air. The heated air is then sent into the drum via a blower or fan. Using natural gas or propane, gas dryers use an ignitor to burn the gas and a blower or fan draws the hot air into the drum. 
     Both dryers get vented to the outside because they expel moist, lint-filled air. Failure to vent to the outside would result in a mildew-filled laundry room as well as lots of tiny fluff particles filling the air and eventually settling on everything. In addition, the vent on a gas dryer exhausts out the products of combustion, which you also don’t want to inhale. 
     There are ventless electric dryers that are sometimes found in apartments. There are two main types: condenser and heat pump. These dryers are more efficient energy-wise (the heat pump is the most efficient), but their cycles take longer than vented driers. 
     With a condenser dryer the air is heated by a condenser and then travels to the drum and starts evaporating the water from the wet clothes. Air returns to the condenser for a cool down and while the moisture condenses, the air gets reheated and returns to the drum to start the cycle over again. Either a drain to divert the condensed water is required or it will collect in a tray that needs to be emptied after each use. 
     Heat pumps use a refrigerator-like compressor technology, recirculate air, and remove moisture from the clothes and air. They uses lower temperatures than conventional dryers, and are therefore gentler on clothes. 
     Gas dryers cost more...around $50 to $100, not to mention the installation cost if a gas line has to be run. Gas dryers are more energy-efficient in the long run, though that may depend on rates in the area. 
     Front-load washers spin three times as fast as they did in the early ’80s, meaning clothes aren’t as wet going into the dryer. There are now Energy Star-certified dryers, in both electric and gas versions, and these dryers use 20 percent less energy than standard models. They use moisture sensors to stop the dryer when clothes are dry instead of running the entire cycle and lower heat settings that increase dry times but use less power. This can reduce energy costs and you could save about $245 over the entire life of the dryer. Therefore, depending on how much you spend, the savings may not be enough to recuperate the extra money. 
     Guess what? Manufacturers tend to keep the features the same for the electric and gas versions of the same dryer. That means whether if you have gas or electricity, most experts will tell you to stay with what you have because there just isn’t that much difference between the two.

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

Fake Calendar Phenomenon

     I recently saw this reposted on Facebook by someone who willy-nilly posts things without ever doing a fact check. The result has been some pretty silly posts and this is one of them.  
     The message also associates the event with a cash windfall, claiming the Chinese call it "silver pockets full" or "money bags" which is likely nothing more than an incentive to pass the post along.
     First of all, the original post was in 2018, so the calendar is actually December, 2018. A quick gander at December, 2019 shows the 1st of the month is on Sunday, not Saturday. 

Some facts:
# Between years 2010 and 2050, Saturday falls on the first of the month 69 times.
# In recent years Saturday December 1 has occurred in 2012 and 2018. The next time won’t be until 2029. 
# May 2026 will have 5 Fridays, 5 Saturdays and 5 Sundays as did March of this year. Check it out HERE
     
     How often does the 1st day of a month fall on a Saturday? All this and more can be verified on the site timeanddate.

Saturday, June 1, 2019

Richard Roose Gets Boiled Alive

     Boiling, in the history of punishment, was a method of execution commonly involving a large container of heated liquid such as water, oil, molten lead, wax, tallow, or wine, into which a convicted prisoner was placed until he died. 
     It is said that Roman emperor Domitian commanded that the apostle John be boiled to death in oil, but John only continued to preach from within the pot. Another time, John was forced to drink poison, but it did not hurt him. Thus John, the head of the church in Ephesus at the time, was banished to Patmos in A.D. 97. 
     During the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, thousands of Christians were boiled in oil. In the Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London (1852), a history of London from the late 12th to the mid-16th century, a poisoner is said to have met his death by being lowered on a chain into boiling water at Smithfield in 1522. 
     However, the only extant legislative notice of boiling in England occurred in an Act passed in 1531 during the reign of Henry VIII, the preamble of which made poisoning a form of petty treason (i.e., killing one’s husband or master), the penalty for which would be boiling to death. The statute also named Richard Roose (or Rouse). 
    In 1531 boiling was used to punish Richard Roose, guilty of having poisoned porridge served to various people. His public execution was thus described: He screamed real loud and several strong women became ill at the sight and had to be carried away half dead; others did not seem frightened by the boiling but would have preferred to see a beheading. 
     Roose was a cook who, by putting poisoned yeast in porridge prepared for the household of the Bishop of Rochester and the poor of Lambeth parish, sickened 17 people and killed a man and a woman. He was found guilty of petty treason and publicly boiled.  Read his story

Things That Happen To Your Body After You’re Boiled Alive