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Thursday, September 27, 2018

Honoring the President

     I am annoyed by people who claim to be Christians yet bad-mouth the President of the United States on Facebook and elsewhere! Have they not read what the Apostles Paul and Peter wrote? 

Obey the government...There is no government anywhere that God has not placed in power. So those who refuse to obey the laws of the land are refusing to obey God, and punishment will follow. For the policeman does not frighten people who are doing right; but those doing evil will always fear him. So if you don’t want to be afraid, keep the laws and you will get along well. The policeman is sent by God to help you. But if you are doing something wrong, of course you should be afraid, for he will have you punished...Obey the laws, then, for two reasons: first, to keep from being punished, and second, just because you know you should. Pay your taxes too, for these same two reasons...obey those over you, and give honor and respect to all those to whom it is due. (Living Bible – Letter to the Romans) 

     The apostle Paul was arrested in Jerusalem on trumped-up charges and was brought before Felix, governor of Judea. Felix was hardly an exemplary public official. The Roman historian Tacitus wrote that Felix “thought that he could do any evil act with impunity.” He was more interested in receiving a bribe than in rendering justice. When Paul was brought before Felix he showed respect referring to him as “his Excellency, the governor.” Nor did Paul rant and rave about Felix's corruption and the oppressive government he served. 
     When Paul appeared before another government official, Festus, he addressed him as “most excellent Festus”. When he appeared before King Agrippa he stated, “I pray to God that not only you but all who are listening to me today may become what I am, except for these chains.” 
     Paul also wrote to Timothy and told him to “to pray for leaders and all who are in authority.” 
     Paul was not the only example. In spite of being put in prison for a crime he didn’t commit, Joseph treated Pharaoh and his Egyptian guards with honor. Daniel and his three friends spoke respectfully to Babylon’s evil King Nebuchadnezzar. David blessed and prayed for King Saul, even though Saul wanted to kill David. When David had the opportunity to kill Saul, he didn't because Saul was the King. 
     During a political campaign in 1774, John Wesley wrote in his Journal: 
I met those of our society who had votes in the ensuing election, and advised them: 
1. To vote…for the person they judged most worthy, 
2. To speak no evil of the person they voted against, and 
3. To take care their spirits were not sharpened against those that voted on the other side. 
     No matter how much one disagrees with or disapproves of the president, if they believe what the Bible says then they are to honor the office of the president, not make derogatory Facebook posts. 
     Honoring does not mean agreeing with. Or that we cannot speak out, or that we cannot work within legal means to oppose him and change policies. It does not mean we must obey laws if they require us to disobey God's commands. Honor doesn’t mean blanket endorsement. In the democratic society we live in we can appeal to them, lobby them and express disagreement, but like Paul, it should be done in a respectful manner.

Tuesday, September 25, 2018


Flying fox bat
     Bats are misunderstood and feared by many, probably because of things like rabies, pointy teeth and hanging upside down to sleep which is weird. But, they are pretty amazing animals. 

1) Bats are the only mammals able to fly. What's more, the are exceptional fliers. 
2) A single brown bat can catch around 1,200 mosquito-size insects an hour. In Bracken Cave, Texas, it's estimated that the 20 million Mexican free-tailed bats that live there eat about 200 tons of insects every night. 
3) There are only three species of vampire bats in the world, but they don't suck blood. They bite then lap it up. 
4) Bats don't eat just bugs. They can digest bananas, mangoes, and berries. 
5) Fewer than 10 people in the last 50 years have contracted rabies from bats in North America. Generally bats don't spread disease and toxins to innocent victims and they avoid people. If you are bitten by a bat, go to the doctor.  You will likely panic, but don't start making funeral arrangements. 
6) They can see things in the daytime, but most of their business is conducted under the cover of darkness. Bats don't see very well at night, but they use echo location to to fly around with great accuracy. They send out beeps and listen for variations in the echoes that bounce back at them. Bats are nocturnal, mostly because it's easier to hunt bugs and stay out of the way of predators when it's dark. 
7) More than 50 percent of bat species in the United States are either in severe decline or are listed as endangered. Industry, deforestation, pollution, and killing have wiped out many bats and their habitats. A couple of years ago I discovered a bat had taken up residence in an upstairs window by lodging between the open window and the screen. It refused to be frightened away so I had to wait til dark when it left and close the window. Up close they are ugly as sin. 
Not cute!

8) In the bat cave where it's usually cold bats keep warm by folding their wings around them, trapping air against their bodies for insulation. 
9) An anticoagulant found in vampire bat spit may find use as a treatment for human cardiac patients. The stuff that keeps blood flowing when a vampire bat bites its prey seems to keep blood flowing in human being. 
10) Bats have only one baby, called a pup, a year. Most mammals of smallish size have way more offspring than that. 
11) The average lifespan of a bat varies, but some species of brown bat can live to be 30 years old. Considering that other small mammals live only two years or so, that's impressive. 
12) Bats wash behind their ears. They are meticulous when it comes to grooming themselves and each othet. 

74 Interesting Facts about Bats is a must read!

Monday, September 24, 2018

Poisoned French Fries

     I don't like McDonald's fries for the simple reason that they are too salty, but they are extremely popular...and unhealthy. How can potatoes, even if they are covered in salt, be unhealthy?!  As bad as McDonald's fries are, they rank among the least unhealthy!  See the end of the post for a comparison.
     Nutritionally, a medium order of fries includes 340 calories, 16 grams of fat and 44 grams of carbs, whatever that means, but the fries are almost always, just a side dish combined with other nasty and equally unhealthy items. A breakfast of scrambled eggs, bacon, toast and coffee totals just about the same.
     What's shocking the amount of other ingredients in their fries, they're not just potatoes fried in oil and coated with salt. No, McDonald's fries have 19 ingredients consisting of chemicals, fats and acids. 
     One of the mix of ingredients is natural beef flavor. Beef flavor in French fries?! Originally, it was to put an end to cooking their fries in actual beef fat. The beef flavoring (the ingredients of which aren't required to be disclosed by the companies that manufacture it) doesn't technically qualify as an ingredient according to the FDA. McDonald's beef flavoring doesn't qualify it as suitable for vegetarians and in 2001, McDonald's was sued for trying to insinuate that was the case. 
     What else is in their fries? Dextrose glucose, a form of sugar, is added to their fries because the way their potatoes are par-cooked (partially cooked, to be finished later) removes the natural sugars. The dextrose glucose helps the fries achieve the uniform golden appearance. In other words, it colors the fries. They spray it onto the fries before cooking to keep them looking golden. 
     Tertiary butylhydroquinone, is a chemical preservative derived from butane which is used to extend the storage life of many foods. In fact, it's found in most processed foods. While not considered toxic, the health effects are significant...it can lead to vision disturbances, contributes to ADHD, causes nausea, delirium, tinnitus and vomiting in high doses. It may also cause food allergies.
     Polydimethylsiloxane is a form of silicone which is used in, among other things, the production of skin care products and silly putty. McDonald's uses it as an anti-foaming agent in the cooking process to prevent the oil from spitting and bubbling. The FDA approved it and most all fast food chains use it in the United States. 
     A citric-based antioxidant is used to boost the shelf-life. Then there's hydrolyzed wheat (used in hair products) and milk which are used with the beef flavoring to give fries their taste. What that means is if anyone has a food allergy to wheat or dairy products, McDonald's fries are unsuitable...pretty amazing considering they are potatoes. 
     McDonald's fries also contain a preservative called sodium acid pyrophosphate which has been linked to a wide range of health issues, including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. 
     How are McDonald's fries cooked? First, the potatoes, which are at least non-GMO, are peeled and cut then given a bath in some of the aforementioned chemicals then partially fried in oil, then the beef flavor and hydrolyzed wheat and milk is added. After that they are frozen and shipped. When fried in the restaurant (in more oil) the TBHQ is added. After cooking, they're liberally salted. Then they are eaten by the customer. 
     Despite the chemical concoction, frying is one of the least healthy steps in the process; they're fried in hydrogenated soybean oil which facilitates the inclusion of trans fats. Trans fats, rightly, are as bad as their reputation. A diet high in trans fats can lead to cholesterol problems, heart disease and strokes. Ten years ago McDonald's confessed the fat content of their fries was far greater than previously thought, but they didn't do anything about it. 
     Why do they continue to process their fries the way they do? McDonald's insists all the ingredients are necessary, but that's simply not true. There's no good reason. 
     In fact, outside of the United States all these ingredients aren't used. In India, for example, they use only potatoes, salt, vegetarian palm olein and a small amount of dextrose. In the United Kingdom non-hydrogenated oils are used to cook them. In Australia, Denmark and Israel, McDonald's uses canola oil so trans fats aren't included. 
     All said, an occasional order of fries isn't going to kill you, but in excess the long-term effects of many of those ingredients are risky and, besides, the fries have almost no nutritional value.
     Of course McDonald's aren't the only ones serving us a concoction of unhealthy fries.  Wendy's, Chick-fil-A Waffle Fries, Arby’s Curly Fries (they taste the same when you belch them up as when you first ate them), Five Guys (you could wring the greas eout of them), Sonic, or just about any other fast food chain's fries are all equally bad. 
     WebMD compared calories, fat grams, "bad fat" grams, percentage of calories from fat, and sodium levels for the "small" or "regular" serving of french fries at 14 major fast-food chains. There were none that could be considered healthy and "best" or "worst" depends on what category you are considering.

Lowest in Calories: 
Sonic Drive-In 

Lowest in Fat: 
Sonic Drive-In 

Lowest Percentage of Calories From Fat: 
Sonic Drive-In 
Dairy Queen 

Lowest in "Bad Fats" (saturated and trans fats): 
Sonic Drive 

Highest in Fiber: 
Jack in the Box Natural Cut 

Lowest in Sodium: 
Chick-fil-A waffle fries 
Sonic Drive-In regular 

Sonic Drive-In's regular fries are lowest in calories, fat grams, percentage of calories from fat, and total amount of "bad fats" and second lowest in sodium.) The runner up is McDonald's. 

Highest in Calories: 
Carl's Jr. Natural Cut 

Highest in Fat: 
Carl's Jr. Natural Cut small fries 
Arby's small curly fries 

Highest Percentage of Calories From Fat: 
Arby's Curly Fries 
Chick-fil-A Waffle fries 

Highest in "Bad Fat" (saturated and trans fats) 
Jack in the Box Natural Cut 
Long John Silvers 

Lowest in Fiber: 
Sonic Drive-In regular
Carl's Jr. Natural Cut 
Arby's curly fries 

     Healthwise, the all around loser is Carl's Jr. Natural Cut French Fries which are highest in calories and grams of fat. Sharing the award is Jack in the Box Natural Cut fries, which are shockingly high in "bad fats"

Thursday, September 20, 2018

Presidential Lies

    “How did we go from a president who could not tell a lie to politicians who cannot tell the truth?” Michael Bloomberg 

     Many years ago (very many, actually) when I was in elementary school I remember a teacher explaining to us the difference between democracy (the United States) and communism (Russia). She said that the United States government never lies to its citizens, but Russia did. I think she might have actually believed that; I know we did because she was, after all, our teacher. 
     In any case, a few years later, in 1960, I found out that wasn't true. President Eisenhower had flat out denied that U-2 spy planes were flying over the Soviet Union, but in 1960 the USSR shot one down and captured its pilot. President Eisenhower was forced to admit that the CIA had been flying spy missions over the USSR for years. 
     Billionaire and former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg, in a commencement speech at Rice University in Texas, lashed out at the “epidemic of dishonesty” in politics that he said poses “one of the most serious dangers” to American democracy as he slammed the “endless barrage of lies” and “alternate realities” in national politics. He held up presidents George Washington and Abraham Lincoln as models of honesty. 
     Sorry Mr. Bloomberg. Presidents like George Washington, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson and even Abe Lincoln were hardly saints. 
     Most people blame the beginning of clandestine operations and their control by the President began with formation of the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency. But, Thomas Jefferson wrote the “laws of necessity, of self-preservation, of saving our country when in danger,” overrode moral standards and any written laws. 

     Washington understood that espionage was essential, especially during the battle for independence. One of Washington’s first acts as commander of the Continental Army in 1775 was to hire a spy to go behind the enemy lines and report on British activities in Boston because he believed it was essential to winning the war; so sensitive in fact that he withheld the information from the Continental Congress. 
     In 1777 he wrote, “there are some secrets, on the keeping of which so, depends, oftentimes, the salvation of an Army: secrets which cannot, at least ought not to, be entrusted to paper; nay, which none but the Commander-in-Chief at the time, should be acquainted with.” 
     Washington believed in covert mail opening was an important national security tool and instructed his agents to contrive a means of opening letters without breaking the seals and make copies of the contents. He even used clergymen to elicit information from captured British soldiers. 
     OK, that was war, but did his spying end there? Washington’s successful use of intelligence and deception during the Revolutionary War led him to conclude that the President needed a secret service fund to handle intelligence operations and that intelligence operations were the exclusive province of the President who is also the Commander in Chief of the military. 
     So, he requested a “secret service” fund that would be controlled by the President that would allow him to conduct secret operations free from congressional oversight; it was approved. That meant Washington had a blank check to conduct secret operations that he alone deemed to be in the national interest. 
     President Thomas Jefferson was no less inclined to use the secret service fund and even used it as slush fund to bribe Native American tribes to cede territory and to fund a covert operation designed to overthrow a foreign government, to covertly acquire the plan from the Spanish government concerning a canal through the isthmus of Panama and to acquire information about the Dutch government and plant stories in the Dutch press favorable to Americans interests. 
     Jefferson believed that it was the President's prerogative to direct secret machinations of the American government because the Senate was not qualified to judge the necessity for some missions. Jefferson also utilized private citizens as a means of circumventing congressional oversight; rightly so because even in those days congressmen leaked information. 
     In 1805, James Madison, then Secretary of State, hired a prostitute using money from the secret service fund in order to enhance the visit of a foreign envoy from Tunisia. Madison also provided misleading accounts to Congress and foreign governments concerning some of his administration’s actions. 
     What about Honest Abe Lincoln? His greatest achievement was his fight to abolish slavery, but he lied to the people of the South, telling them, “Do the people of the South really entertain fears that a Republican administration would...interfere with their slaves, or with them, about their slaves? If they do, I wish to assure you, as once a friend, and still, I hope, not an enemy, that there is no cause for such fears.” 
     In 1985, Iran offered to free the several hostages they’d taken in exchange for missiles and President Reagan swore the U.S. did not trade weapons or anything else for hostages and never would. A few months later, he admitted he lied. 
     There's more, but the fact is all Presidents have been caught in a lie or two.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Use DuckDuckGo NOT Google

     DuckDuckGo has been around since 2008 as an alternative to Google search, calling itself “the search engine that doesn’t track you.”  When you search, or when you browse the web, websites are blocked from tracking you. 
     Ever wonder why, when you make an internet search, and then Facebook or Google or Amazon start showing you a ton of ads that correspond to what you searched, how that happened? Search engines are watching you. 
     Did you know that unlike searching on DuckDuckGo, when you search on Google, they keep your search history forever? That means they know every search you’ve ever done on Google. That alone is pretty scary, but it’s just the shallow end of the very deep pool of data that they try to collect on people.
     What most people don’t realize is that even if you don’t use any Google products directly, they’re still trying to track as much as they can about you. Google trackers have been found on 75% of the top million websites. This means they're also trying to track most everywhere you go on the internet, trying to slurp up your browsing history! READ MORE 

DuckDuckGo Flaw

Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Eating Scabs

     Some people engage in self-cannibalism as an extreme form of body modification, for example eating their own skin. Others will drink their own blood, a practice called autovampirism, but sucking blood from wounds is generally not considered cannibalism. Placentophagy may be a form of self-cannibalism. 
     Sometimes, a person may pick at their skin and not even notice they’re doing it, or they may pick for any of the following reasons: 

# as a coping mechanism to deal with anxiety, anger, or sadness 
# as a response to serious episodes of stress or tension 
# from boredom or habit 
# because of a family history of the condition 

     Sometimes a person may feel relief when they pick and eat their scabs. However, these feelings are often followed by shame and guilt. While it's normal for some children, for an adult here is most likely a mental health issue or a nutritional deficiency resulting in Pica. Still, there are a few people who just like the taste. 
     Picking and eating scabs can affect a person physically and emotionally. Some people pick at their skin because of feelings of anxiety and depression, or this habit may lead them to experience these feelings. It can also cause scarring. 
     Scab picking is a form of excoriation, just as picking at the skin is. When picking scabs, however, the picker will pick at scabs that have been caused from any trauma. Picking scabs is a self-perpetuating way to act out obsessive-compulsive tendencies that often signal an underlying, often an as yet undiagnosed mood or anxiety disorder. Patients often describe the experience as comforting even though painful. 
     A common symptom of scab picking is eating the scabs after picking which can be hard to spot by and observer because the picker knows it's unsightly and repulsive to others. Hence, picking is usually limited to areas that are hidden under clothing. 
     Repeated infections at the scab picking sites become problems that can have significant consequences and permanent scarring is almost always a result. Many people who scab pick know they are doing something that is considered disgusting, but they find it almost impossible to stop nevertheless. 
     Habitual scab picking is classified in the group of psychological disorders associated with self-harm, such as deliberate skin cutting, head banging, and burning oneself. 
     These actions are more often associated with girls than with boys and scab picking often starts when the subject is age 13 or 14. Psychological symptoms often associated with picking scabs are depression, low self-esteem, addiction, eating disorders, and anxiety. A history of trauma or some sort of abuse is almost always involved. 
     Often the habit gets started as a way to relieve the pent-up frustrations or fears when other ways of dealing with conflict are not effective. Feeling that verbal communications are ineffective leave the scab picker feeling there is no other way to express the emotional turmoil going on inside. When the picking of scabs brings on emotional relief, desired pain, or pleasure that medical intervention is advised. Sometimes, a person may pick at their skin and not even notice they’re doing it.

Monday, September 10, 2018

Stupid Facebook Post

     There is no shortage of stupid posts people share on Facebook, but this is one of the most recent I have seen. The story from Newsbreakapp claims Colin Kaepernick, who was described as a “traitorous cretin and anti-American troublemaker”, was arrested in San Francisco Sunday after running to the 50-yard line to take a knee and giving a black power fist in the air during the playing of the national anthem. It was also claimed he resisted when officers were hitting him to subdue him. Additionally it was claimed that, “according to one fan who was wearing New Balance shoes, he got exactly what he deserved.”
     The story originated from an article published by America's Last Line of Defense on September 9, 2018. There are numerous hints that the article is fake: the category POLITICAL MISINFORMATION UNDER THE GUISE OF "SATIRE." that the story was was posted in or the phrase in the site header that reads."Information you probably shouldn't trust". 
     The actual photo is a still from a 2013 Youtube video of a field invader being tackled by an Oklahoma Highway Patrolman at the University of Oklahoma vs Iowa State game. 


     Regardless of where one stands on the issues surrounding Colin Kaepernick, posting this trash, or worse yet, believing it, is just ludicrous. To be honest, I am not sure if the person sharing the story is being facetious or if they really believe it.

Friday, September 7, 2018

The Day Music Died


     On February 3, 1959, American rock and roll musicians Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson were killed in a plane crash near Clear Lake, Iowa, together with pilot Roger Peterson. The event later became known as "The Day the Music Died." 
     At the time, Holly and his band, consisting of Waylon Jennings, Tommy Allsup, and Carl Bunch, were playing on the "Winter Dance Party" tour across the Midwest. Rising artists Valens, Richardson and Dion and the Belmonts had also joined the tour. 
     Richardson, who had the flu, swapped places with Jennings, taking his seat on the plane, while Allsup lost his seat to Valens on a coin toss. Soon after takeoff, late at night and in poor, wintry weather conditions, the pilot lost control of the Beechcraft Bonanza and crashed into a cornfield killing everyone on board
     The long journeys between venues on board the cold, uncomfortable tour buses adversely affected the performers, with cases of flu and even frostbite. After stopping at Clear Lake to perform, and frustrated by the conditions, Holly chartered a plane to fly to their next concert in Moorhead, Minnesota.
     Buddy Holly had terminated his association with the Crickets in November 1958 and assembled a band consisting of Waylon Jennings, Tommy Allsup and Carl Bunch with the opening vocals of Frankie Sardo. New artist Ritchie Valens, J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson and Dion DiMucci and his band and The Belmonts joined the tour to promote their recordings. 
     The distances between venues had not been properly considered when the performances were scheduled; instead of "circling" around the Midwest to each town, the tour zig-zagged with distances between cities over 400 miles. General Artists Corporation, the organization that booked the tour, later received considerable criticism for their seemingly total disregard for the conditions they forced the touring musicians to endure. 
     The entire company traveled together in one bus, although the buses used for the tour were wholly inadequate, breaking down and being replaced quite often. It's estimated that five reconditioned buses were used in the first eleven days. The artists themselves were responsible for loading and unloading equipment at each stop and the buses were not equipped for the weather which consisted of waist-deep snow in several areas and varying temperatures from the 20s to as low as −36 °F. One bus had a heating system that broke down shortly after the tour began. 
     Later, Richardson and Valens began experiencing flu-like symptoms and drummer Bunch was hospitalized for severely frostbitten feet, after the tour bus broke down in subzero temperatures near Ironwood, Michigan. 
     On Monday, February 2, the tour arrived in Clear Lake, having driven 350 miles from the previous day's concert in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The town had not been a scheduled stop, but the tour promoters, hoping to fill an open date, called the manager of the local Surf Ballroom and offered him the show and a show was scheduled for that night. 

     The next scheduled destination after Clear Lake was Moorhead, Minnesota, a 365-mile drive. Holly decided to charter a plane to take himself and his band to Fargo, North Dakota; the rest of the party would have picked him up in Moorhead, saving him the journey in the bus and leaving him time to get some rest. 
     The plane was a V-tailed Bonanza. Flight arrangements were made with Roger Peterson, a 21-year-old local pilot. The flying service charged a fee of $36 per passenger for the flight on the 1947 aircraft which could seat three passengers plus the pilot. 
     The exact events leading up to how the musicians ended up on the plane have been in dispute, but after the show ended, Holly, Valens, and Richardson were driven to the Mason City Municipal Airport. The weather at the time of departure was reported as light snow, a ceiling of 3,000 feet with sky obscured, visibility 6 miles and winds from 20 to 30 mph. Although deteriorating weather was reported along the planned route, the weather briefings the pilot received failed to relay the information. 
     The plane took off normally at 12:55 am on Tuesday, February 3 one of the musicians witnessed the take-off and was able to see clearly the aircraft's tail light for most of the brief flight, which started with an initial left turn onto a northwesterly heading and a climb to 800 feet. The tail light was then observed gradually descending until it disappeared out of view. 
     Around 1:00 am, when the pilot failed to make the expected radio contact, repeated attempts to establish communication were made, but they were all unsuccessful. Later that morning, having heard no word from the pilot another plane took off to retrace his planned route and within minutes, at around 9:35 am, the wreckage less than 6 miles northwest of the airport. A deputy sheriff drove to the crash site in a cornfield. 
     The plane had impacted the ground at a speed estimated to be around 170 mph, banked steeply to the right and in a nose-down attitude. The right wing tip had struck the ground sending the aircraft cartwheeling across the frozen field for 540 feet before coming to rest against a wire fence. 
     The bodies of Holly and Valens had been ejected from the fuselage and lay near the plane's wreckage. Richardson's body had been thrown over the fence and into the cornfield. The pilot's body was entangled in the wreckage. The county coroner certified that all four victims died instantly, citing the cause of death as "gross trauma to brain" for the three artists and "brain damage" for the pilot. 
     Holly's pregnant wife learned of his death from the reports on television. A widow after only six months of marriage, she suffered a miscarriage shortly after, reportedly due to "psychological trauma". Holly's mother, on hearing the news on the radio at home in Lubbock, Texas, screamed and collapsed. 
     The official investigation was carried out by the Civil Aeronautics Board and it emerged that the pilot, although he had passed his written examination, he was not qualified to operate in weather that required flying by reference to instruments. He and the flying service were certified to operate only under visual flight rules, which essentially require that the pilot must be able to see where he is going. On the night of the accident, visual flight would have been virtually impossible due to the low clouds, the lack of a visible horizon, and the absence of ground lights over the sparsely populated area. 
     Furthermore, the pilot, who had failed an instrument check ride nine months before the accident, had received his instrument training on airplanes equipped with a conventional artificial horizon while his plane was equipped with an older attitude gyroscope. 
    The two types of instruments display the same information in graphically opposite ways. It was concluded that the accident was due to "the pilot's unwise decision to embark on a flight" that required instrument flying skills he did not have. A contributing factor was Peterson's unfamiliarity with the old-style attitude gyroscope which may have caused him to believe that he was climbing when he was in fact descending (an example of spatial disorientation). Another contributing factor was the "seriously inadequate" weather briefing which "failed to even mention adverse flying condition which should have been highlighted". 
     As a result of the miscarriage suffered by Holly's wife and the circumstances in which she was informed of his death, a policy was later adopted by authorities not to disclose victims' names until after their families have been informed.

Tuesday, September 4, 2018


# A typical distance for rain to fall is about 6,500 feet. A typical maximum size for a raindrop is 1/3 to 1/5 of an inch in diameter, since above that diameter wind force will tend to break it up into smaller droplets. A one fifth inch diameter raindrop weighs 0.002 ounces and has a terminal velocity of about 22 miles per hour. For comparison, the water from a typical garden hose has a water pressure of 40 psi above atmospheric pressure, which can propel the water to a velocity of around 35-36 miles per hour. 

# The least rainy place on earth isn’t in the desert. Antarctica gets only 6.5 inches of rain or snow per year, making it the continent with the lowest annual rainfall by far. On the other end of the spectrum, Lloro, Colombia averages about 534 inches (44.5 feet) of rain per year. 

# In Cherrapunji, India the weather station there holds the world record for the heaviest 48-hour rainfall (more than 98 inches – over 8 feet), set in 2014. # In Cherrapunji after a rain there is a smell called petrichor. The average raindrop hits a porous surface of the ground with enough force to trap air bubbles at point of impact. The bubbles then rise and pop, releasing aerosols. 

# Rain sometimes evaporates before it hits the ground. It's known as phantom rain or virga. You will see curtains of rain dangling in the sky while the ground remains dry. # You will get less wet in the rain if you run. 

# Generally speaking, if you see a cumulonimbus cloud—a tall, puffy cloud that looks flat at the top— or a nimbostratus cloud, a flat low-level gray cloud—you can be fairly certain that rain is in the 24-hour forecast. # Raindrops do not have a teardrop shape. Their size varies and the smallest raindrops are called cloud droplets, and their shape is round. Big raindrops are shaped like parachutes. The biggest raindrops on Earth were recorded in Brazil and the Marshall Islands in 2004— some of them were 0.39 inches in diameter. 

# In some places unusual things have been known to fall from the sky, like small fish in addition to other things. 

# The weight of rain is substantial; an inch of rain on an acre of land weighs roughly 226,000 pounds

# Rain droplets contain dissolved nitrogen in the air and it makes the grass look greener after rainfall. 

# Mount Waialeale in Kauai, Hawaii, as it has up to 350 rainy days per year. # A 2016 study determined it’s also possible to measure rainfall amounts over oceans by monitoring the sound of droplets hitting the waves. 

# Florida, Louisiana and Alabama were the wettest states, while California, Montana, Nevada and Arizona were the driest (Las Vegas took the top spot for driest city). 

# Las Vegas is the only large US city to average less than an inch of rain for every month of the year. At its driest, Las Vegas hasn't even accumulated an inch of rain throughout an entire year. The driest year on record for Las Vegas was 1953, when 0.56 inches fell at the airport. When a rain cloud does pass over Las Vegas, it usually drops less than one-tenth of an inch and seldom does the city get more than half an inch of rain in one day 

# The wettest US cities are: Portland, Oregon. Average annual rainfall: 43 inches with the average rainy days per year being 154. It's followed by: Seattle, Washington, Tallahassee, Florida, Port Arthur, Texas, Miami, Florida, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, West Palm Beach, Florida and New Orleans, Louisiana. 

     Weather can make one person cheery and another to feel grumpy. Now research suggests we are hard-wired in how we respond to weather. Scientists have identified four personality types based on how weather affects a person's frame of mind. Weather personality types appear to run in families. Whether this is due to genetics, or just a parent's attitudes rubbing off onto their children could not be determined. Nevertheless, this finding bolsters the theory that for many people weather and mood are strongly linked. 

Fair Weather - Warm, sunny weather brings out the best in you. Clear skies put you in good spirits. You feel happier, less fearful and less angry on days with more sunshine and higher temperatures. While sun and temperature affect you most, you also respond to rain. Ongoing rainstorms will dampen your spirits.
Cool Cloudy – This is where some people thrive and a little rain boosts their mood. Once it turns warm and sunny they get grouchy, become unhappy, fearful and angry. 
 Rain Haters — Rain really bothers them. Wet weather disturbs them far more than it influences other weather personality types. Rain leaves them feeling unhappy, anxious and most of all, angry. The main good mood driver is lack of rain. 
Unaffected — Rain or shine, hot or cold, these people are little affected by the weather. Even then, they might feel a little more anxious than normal on the cooler, cloudier days.